Green Fire Retardants for Structural Timber


Brominated - A bromine-containing substance
Carbonific - A substance that produces carbon as it decomposes
Cellulose -  Makes up the cell walls, and provides the tensile strength of the wood matrix (32)
Flame Spread Rate - Velocity at which a flame propagates across a surface

Halogens - Highly reactive and potentially dangerous elements used as flame retardants. Chlorine and bromine are the main ones used
Heat Release Rate - The amount of energy (fire intensity) released by burning materials, usually measured in kW/m2
Hemicellulose - Similar to cellulose, and grows around the cellulose fibres (32)
Hygroscopic - A tendency to absorb water
Ignition - Point at which combustion of substrate (fuel) occurs is usually characterized by flaming

Impregnation - The process of diffusing certain chemicals in a water-based solution through a material under pressure conditions
Intumescent coating - A coating that can expand and char when exposed to heat
Leaching - The 'washing out' of chemicals from a material by weathering
Ligningives rigidity to the wood, allowing trees to grow upright; it cements the cells together, thus accounting for the compressive and shear strengths (32)
Migration - The movement of chemicals which are not chemically bound to a host material
Persistent - Chemicals which do not decay
Spumific - Evolves gases or vapours at high temperatures
Time To Ignition - The time taken for a given material to ignite after a sufficiently high heat flux is induced upon it